You are using a direct ICA connection to a published desktop. In this case there is no real USB redirection.
Mass storage device, printer, keyboard, mouse, etc. will be redirected but not all USB devices.
For all devices being able to be redirected, there has to be a driver locally installed. For smartphones there is none. That’s the reason a smartphone is not being redirected.
Only two options would be
– use XenDesktop with a virtualized session
– use Dell Wyse TCX for USB redirection